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Commercial Vehicles

Learn about the different types of commercial vehicles and the restrictions that apply to them. 

At a glance

Understanding Restrictions on Commercial Vehicles

There are different restrictions for driving commercial vehicles, which include goods and other vehicles:
 

  • The restrictions on goods vehicles vary across the types of vehicles.
  • Some vehicles are not allowed to be driven on expressways and in tunnels.
  • Oversized vehicles need permits to be driven on roads.

For other restrictions on driving buses, click here.

Driving Goods Vehicles

There are certain restrictions that apply to driving different types of goods vehicles:

Learn about blind spot safety requirements for HGVs and VHGVs with maximum laden weight (MLW) over 12,000kg.

Driving on expressways and in tunnels

Excluded vehicles are not allowed to be driven on expressways, and some vehicles are prohibited to be driven in tunnels.

Driving oversized vehicles

If your vehicle exceeds the width, length or weight requirements, you must apply for an oversized vehicle movement (OVM) permit. You may also need to engage an auxiliary police escort.


Learn what to watch out for when driving over-height vehicles.

Lorries with cranes must be equipped with an audio warning system to detect if cranes are properly stowed.

Find out more

Find complete details on LTA.GOV


Understanding Restrictions on Commercial Vehicles


There are different restrictions for driving commercial vehicles, which include goods and other vehicles:

  • The restrictions on goods vehicles depend on which type they are.
  • Some vehicles are not allowed to be driven on expressways and in tunnels.
  • Oversized vehicles need permits to be driven on roads.

For other restrictions on driving buses, click here.
 

Driving Goods Vehicles


There are 4 main types of goods vehicles:

1.     Light Goods Vehicles (LGVs) are vehicles with maximum laden weight (MLW) of up to 3,500kg.

2.     Heavy Goods Vehicles (HGVs) are vehicles with MLW from 3,501 kg to 16,000kg.

3.     Very Heavy Goods Vehicles (VHGVs) are vehicles with MLW of more than 16,000kg.

4.     Goods-cum-Passenger Vehicles (GPVs) are vehicles with MLW of up to 5,000kg. Depending on their MLW, they can be classified as LGVs or HGVs.  GPVs are meant to transport both goods and passengers.

There are certain restrictions that apply to driving some types of commercial vehicles.
 

Driving a Light Goods Vehicle (LGV)

There are no special restrictions for driving LGVs.
 

Driving a Heavy Goods Vehicle (HGV)

Heavy Goods Vehicles (HGVs) are vehicles with a maximum laden weight (MLW) from 3,501kg to 16,000kg.

Learn about the blind spot safety requirements for HGVs and VHGVs with MLW over 12,000kg.

To park a HGV with MLW over 5,000kg, you must have a valid Vehicle Parking Certificate (VPC) to park your heavy vehicle at designated parking spaces, which are located away from residential areas.

Announcement Shout-out

HGVs need to be parked in the designated parking space when not in use at night between 12 midnight and 6 am.


Learn more about parking your heavy vehicle

You must apply for a police escort if your vehicle’s height exceeds 4.5m. Depending on the width of the vehicle and the roads you intend to travel on, you must also apply to LTA for an oversized vehicle movement (OVM) permit to drive an oversized vehicle on the road.

Driving a Very Heavy Goods Vehicle (VHGV)

These vehicles have a maximum laden weight (MLW) of above 16,000kg.

Learn about the blind spot safety requirements for HGVs and VHGVs with MLW over 12,000kg.

You must have a valid Vehicle Parking Certificate (VPC) to park your heavy vehicle at designated parking spaces, which are located away from residential areas.

Announcement Shout-out

VHGVs need to be parked in the designated parking space when not in use at night between 12 midnight and 6 am.

Blind spot safety requirements for HGVs and VHGVs with MLW over 12,000kg


To improve the safety of vehicles and other road users, HGVs and VHGVs with MLW over 12,000kg which are registered from 1 April 2015 must be equipped with mirrors or camera devices to cover the vehicle’s blind spot areas.  This is in addition to the previous requirement of having two rear view mirrors. The additional blind spot mirrors or devices will help drivers to better detect pedestrians, cyclists, motorcyclists and other motorists who are in their blind spots, reducing the risk of accidents when heavy vehicles turn at traffic junctions or change lanes.  HGVs and VHGVs with MLW over 12,000kg include cement mixers, prime movers, tipper trucks, tankers and heavy lorries.

You can approach your vehicle’s authorised agent for advice on how to meet the requirements.

The blind spot mirrors or devices fitted on the heavy vehicles must meet the relevant European or Japanese standards.

European Standard (UN ECE R46)

Japanese Standard (JSR 44)


HGVs and VHGVs (registered before 1 April 2015)

For HGVs and VHGVs with MLW 12,000kg which are registered before 1 April 2015, vehicle owners can choose to either retrofit the additional blind spot mirrors or camera devices, or install a Fresnel lens (at least A4 size) on the passenger side window.

Fresnel lens
 

Fresnel lens (at least A4 size)

The Fresnel lens gives the driver a better view of the blind spot directly next to the passenger door.

The list of companies that supply compliant A4-sized Fresnel lens can be found below.

List of Companies Supplying Fresnel Lens


 

Fresnel lens
Example of Fresnel lens fitted on a HGV
 

Announcement Shout-out

HGVs and VHGVs with MLW over 12,000kg must meet the requirements for additional blind spot mirrors or devices in order to pass their periodic inspections. 



Driving a Goods-cum-Passenger Vehicle (GPV)


These vehicles transport both goods and passengers. If you plan to buy or drive a goods-cum-passenger vehicle, here are the special safety regulations you must follow.

Safety regulations for lorries carrying workers


Driving on expressways


The following vehicles are generally excluded from expressways, including expressway tunnels:

  • Bicycles, tricycles or trishaws
  • Bulldozers
  • Dumpers
  • Excavators
  • Forklifts
  • Graders
  • Hydrant dispensers
  • Invalid carriages
  • Low trailers
  • Mobile concrete pumps
  • Mobile cranes
  • Motor vehicles fitted with any wheel that is not a pneumatic tyre or a solid rubber tyre
  • Motorcycles with side cars attached
  • Motorcycles which are propelled by electric motors
  • Ready-mix concrete trucks
  • Road pavers
  • Road rollers
  • Three-wheeled vans
  • Tractors
  • Wheel loaders
  • Any other motor vehicles with a maximum legal speed of 40 kilometres per hour on any road under the Road Traffic (Regulation of Speed) Rules

If you need to drive any of the above vehicles on the expressway, apply for a permit. To apply, submit the application form and supporting documents in one of the following ways:

  • Email
  • Fax: (65) 6553 5802
  • LTA Customer Service Centre at 10 Sin Ming Drive Singapore 575701

Opening hours:

8.00 am to 4.30 pm, Mondays to Fridays
8.00 am to 12.00 pm, Saturdays

It takes about 3 working days to process an application.

Even if you are granted a permit, you are not allowed to travel on expressways during the following peak hours, unless special authorisation is granted:

  • From 7.00 am to 9.30 am
  • From 5.00 pm to 9.30 pm

When travelling on expressways, the permit must be available in the vehicle for checks by LTA at all times.
 

Driving in tunnels


The following vehicles are not allowed to drive in all tunnels, including expressway tunnels.

  • Bicycles, tricycles or trishaws
  • Tankers carrying diesel fuel
  • Trailers hauling standard containers
  • Vehicles higher than 4.5m
  • Vehicles wider than 3m
  • Vehicles longer than 13m
  • Vehicles transporting dangerous goods such as explosives, flammable gases or radioactive substances

In addition, these vehicles are not allowed to drive in the Sentosa Gateway Tunnel:

  • All buses and goods vehicles
  • Vehicles higher than 3.5m

For vehicles wider than 3m, you can apply for an oversized vehicle movement permit to drive them in tunnels.

This list is not exhaustive. For more details on vehicle restrictions in tunnels, refer to the Road Traffic (Expressway Traffic) Rules.
 

Driving an oversized heavy vehicle


Oversized heavy vehicles which are used to carry large and heavy cargo slow down traffic. They may also affect road structures due to their large size and heavy weight. The movement of these vehicles is therefore regulated for the safety and convenience of other road users.

You need to apply for an oversized vehicle movement (OVM) permit 3 days in advance via LTA.PROMPT for these vehicles:

In addition to applying for an OVM permit, you must engage an auxiliary police escort for these vehicles:

  • Overall width (including load) exceeds 3.4m
  • Overall height (including load) exceeds 4.5m
  • Overall weight is 80,000kg or more
     

Driving an over-height vehicle


Plan your route in advance to ensure that your vehicle height does not exceed the height limit of any road structure along the way. Before moving off, if there is a crane fitted on your lorry, check that it is adequately retracted.

adequately stowed crane positionAdequately Stowed Crane Position

 

Inadequately Stowed Crane Position

When driving a vehicle exceeding the height limit, follow these rules:

  • Obey height limit signs
  • Drive safely within the vehicle speed limit
  • Stop and seek advice on an alternative route if:
    • You were diverted from your planned route
    • You are lost or become disoriented
    • You come across in your route a road structure that is lower than the height of your vehicle

Announcement Shout-out

Plan your route and drive carefully to avoid colliding into buildings or structures. The penalties include disqualification from driving for up to 2 years, a fine up to $10,000, and imprisonment up to 5 years.


Audio warning system for lorries with cranes


From 2017, all lorries with cranes  must have an audio warning system that detects whether cranes are properly stowed.  This is to reduce the risk of collision with overhead road structures.

Such audio warning systems feature an audio buzzer in the driver’s cabin which is linked to a limit switch installed at the base of the crane. The buzzer is supposed to sound whenever the limit switch detects that the crane is not fully stowed.

For cranes that are unable to be fully stowed due to operational reasons, an angle sensor can be installed on the crane’s inner boom, instead of having  a limit switch. When the sensor detects that the crane is above its maximum stowed height, the audio buzzer will sound to alert the driver.

New lorries with cranes must be equipped with an audio warning system before LTA will approve them for use on roads.  Existing lorries with cranes must meet the requirement to pass their periodic vehicle inspections, and there may also be checks on the road.

Owner of lorries with cranes can approach their crane agent or supplier for advice on installing or retrofitting an audio warning system.

More details on the limit switch and angle sensor warning systems can be found below.

Limit Switch Audio Warning System

Angle Sensor Audio Warning System